On May 8, 2018, the United States officially withdrew from the agreement after U.S. President Donald Trump signed a presidential memorandum ordering the reinstatement of tougher sanctions.  In his May 8 speech, President Trump called the Iran deal “terrible” and said the United States would “work with our allies to find a real, comprehensive and lasting solution” to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons.  The IAEA continued to verify that Iran complied with the JCPOA and that it had “no credible evidence of activities in Iran related to the development of a nuclear device after 2009”  Other parties to the agreement stated that they would continue to commit to the agreement after the withdrawal of the United States. After Trump said he could not and would not rectify the Iran nuclear deal, Theresa May, Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel backed the deal in a joint statement. Mogherini, the European Union`s foreign policy chief, said the agreement worked well and that no country could break the agreement between Britain, France, Germany, Russia, China and the European Union. It proposed a “collective process” for the continuation of the agreement. The Russian foreign minister confirmed that Iran was maintaining the agreement.  On September 11, 2015, the House of Representatives voted against the approval of the JCPOA, signed by the P5-1 and Iran. Members of the House of Representatives rejected HR 3461 by 162-269 votes.
25 Democrats voted against the nuclear deal with 244 Republicans.   Also on July 15, Vice President Joe Biden met with Senate Democrats at the Foreign Relations Committee on Capitol Hill, where he presented the agreement.  It is certainly possible that a treaty, instead of an executive agreement, will have broader support. Republicans should have voted in favour of ratification and, therefore, repealing it could result in higher political costs. As I noted in 2015, “The difference between seeking a treaty and negotiating an executive agreement is a political issue. It is also the result of both. And as political scientists Glen Krutz and Jeffrey Peake assert in their book “Treaty Politics and the Rise of Executive Agreements,” executive agreements that will be “truly one-sided” without tacit cooperation in Congress will be “codified, but fundamentally hollow.” In contrast, in late August, a group of 900 rabbis signed an open letter from Kalman Topp and yonah Bookstein asking Congress to reject the agreement.  The reason Why President Trump withdrew from the Iran deal has nothing to do with Congress having a say in the deal.