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However, for Turkmenistan, two issues remain outstanding. While the maritime border and the demarcation of the seabed and subsoil with Iran remain to be tackled, concerns remain over the construction of the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCP), which connects the Turkmen port of Turkmenistan to the port of Baku in Azerbaijan. The submarine gas pipeline project will transport gas from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to Europe bypassing Russia and Iran. This is an extremely important project for Turkmenistan from the point of view of diversifying its energy exports, which are currently heavily dependent on China. Turkmenistan supplies nearly 40 percent of China`s total gas imports via a pipeline between Central Asia and China and deliveries of super-oil-cooled liquefied natural gas. Given that the TAPI project is still in the initial phase in the south and Gazprom`s gas imports in the north will cease from 2016, Turkmenistan hopes to diversify its energy exports through the Transcapian gas pipeline by exporting gas to Europe. However, Russia and Iran have raised objections to the project, stating environmental concerns and the impending status of the Caspian Sea. While Article 14(3) allows Member States to install maritime cables and pipelines at the bottom of the Caspian Sea, as stipulated in their mutual or bilateral agreements, Article 14(2) provides that it must comply with the environmental standards and requirements set out in international conventions, including the Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea (2003 Tehran Convention), are anchored. The Tehran Convention makes the protection and conservation of the marine environment of the Caspian Sea a collective responsibility. This means that each of the five Member States can express environmental concerns about the TCP or any other project. Therefore, all expectations of a comprehensive and mutually consensual solution to the problem are false and premature. On 15 October 2008, the representative of ORPHEUS (President Zdravko Lackovic), the Association of Medical School in Europe (President David Gordon) and the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) (Former Direct President Hans Karle) took place at the WFME office in Copenhagen. A formal agreement has been reached for the three organisations to collaborate on the development of a document setting out essential and desirable standards for the doctoral degree in medical schools and schools in Europe.

The following year, the General Assemblies of the three organizations accepted the approval. At the 2009 Aarhus Conference, the preliminary consensus paper “Towards Standards for PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences” was adopted. . . .